Body mass index is a measure of one's obesity. It a number obtained by dividing the weight of a person by the square of his height. Persons with body mass index greater than 30 is considered as obese persons. Obesity is a very depressing fact which has sever impacts on the normal functions like breathing, walking etc. of a person. In USA alone, 24 million people are patients of morbid obesity which causes problems like heart diseases, kidney failures, high levels of cholesterol, blood pressure etc.
Regular exercising and dieting are common method practiced by millions of people for reducing their obesity. But if they are not able to get any relief from the above conventional strategies, then surgeons have devised a surgical procedure through which either the volume of the stomach is reduced thereby reducing the quantity of the food consumed or the absorption of calories of the food consumed is restricted. These procedures are most commonly performed as laparoscopic surgeries.
Laparoscopic gastric banding
The common laparoscopic procedure followed by surgeons all over the world to reduce the consumption of food is known as gastric banding. In this procedure which is usually conducted under general anesthesia, a silicon band is placed around the stomach thereby reducing the volume of the stomach. This reduced volume of stomach makes the patients feel a full experience even if a smaller quantity of food is consumed. They will not feel hungry also. The reduced food intake compels the body to take energy from the fat accumulated in the body. This surgery has been found to be very useful in achieving about 50 % of weight loss within a period of one year after the surgery. Dieting and exercising of the patients who had undergone this surgery has been found to be extremely useful.
Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery
This is another laparoscopic procedure in which the working of a portion of the stomach is controlled by strappling a portion of the stomach. The small intestine's length is also reduced by cutting it in the middle and the cut portion is connected to the reduced stomach. This helps to bye pass a small portion of the stomach as well as the small intestine. As the area of contact of the food and the stomach/intestine is reduced the absorption of calories from the food consumed is also reduced, resulting in non utilization of the food that is already consumed. The quantity of food that can be consumed reduces considerably after this surgery. It is suggested that patients who under go this procedure may take vitamin and calcium tablets to safeguard them from these deficiencies. Internal bleeding and infections are some of the possible risk factors associated with this procedure.
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