Uterus is the organ in which new born baby grows. Cervix is the opening of the uterus which extends to vagina which is the canal connecting uterus to the outside of the body. When cells in the uterus or cervix undergo abnormal changes and proliferate very fast forming tumors the chances of occurring cervical or uterine cancer starts. Cervical and uterine cancer are similar in one aspect that they begin in different parts of the uterus. Uterine cancer is also called endometrial cancer as they usually develop in the in the lining layer inside the uterus. Normally these types of cancers are seen in women the ages of 50 or above, but they can occur at lesser ages also.
Diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer
Cervical cancer is diagnosed by pap smear tests. Colposcopy is another test that doctors may perform in which a vinegar like solution is applied to the cervix and examining the cervix with the help of a special instrument used for this purpose. They may also remove a small sample of the tissue from the cervix for examining it in a biopsy. Some growths that do not pose any threat are not removed, but they are checked regularly to prevent the growth of these cells to cancer. Growths which look like cancer or have the potential of changing to cancer are removed with the help of laser beams or an electric cautery or with the help of cryosurgery which is used to freeze them off at very cold temperatures.
Diagnosis of uterine cancer and its treatment
After arriving at a preliminary diagnosis based on medical history and examination, a biopsy will be conducted to confirm the diagnosis. Surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are the common treatment options followed by doctors. In surgical procedure the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries are removed. If necessary the lymph nodes are also removed. After the surgical procedure the women who underwent this procedure are able to lead normal life except for the fact that they will not be able to become pregnant again. So this procedure may not be difficult for elder women, but women in their reproductive age will definitely find it disgusting.
Ovarian cancer and its treatment
Ovaries are the organ that produces eggs. Although ovarian cancer can be treated and cured, they are not very easily diagnosed as it is asymptotic and no test like pap smear test is available in this case. Swelling in the abdomen, leg pain and feeling of pressure in the pelvic region can be considered as the symptoms of this type of cancer. Blood test, sonogram and biopsies will be conducted to confirm the existence of ovarian cancer. If medications do not give any satisfactory results the ovaries affected by cancer would have to be removed surgically. Oophorectomy is a surgical procedure in which only one ovary affected by cancer is removed and the other ovary which is healthy will be functioning normally which will be a boon to the affected patient. But if the cancer has proliferated and is likely to cause danger to the adjacent tissues and organs also, then a procedure named total hysterectomy is used in which not only both the ovaries, but the fallopian tubes and the uterus will also be removed.