What is laparoscopic procedure?
The laparoscopic surgery conducted by surgeons to remove the colon, rectum or anus afflicted with cancer is medically referred as lap assisted abdomino perineal resection. Laparoscopic procedures are minimally invasive procedures in which only two or three small incisions of the size 1 to 2 cms will be needed to carry out the surgery. Laparoscope is an instrument consisting of a miniature camera connected to one end of a flexible tube. This camera is inserted into the body through one of the small incisions made for the purpose of the surgery. The camera is carefully guided through the body till it reaches the operation area. The videos taken by this camera is instantly enlarged and transmitted to a monitor placed before the surgeon. Through other small incisions made for the purpose of carrying out the surgery, other miniature special instruments for carrying out the surgery are inserted by the surgeon. By watching the videos in the monitor the surgeon carries out the surgery by controlling the instruments from outside the body.
How the surgery is conducted?
Step 1. Arranaging the laparoscope: Through a small incision in the belly of the patient laparoscope is inserted and is guided carefully till it reaches the surgery area. Through other incisions in the belly special instruments for the surgery are inserted,.
Step 2. Separating the sigmoid colon and rectum: The surgeon will cut the veins that carry blood to the sigmoid colon. They will be closed. After this the surgeon will cut the sigmoid colon and rectum and they will be kept ready for removing.
Step 3. removal of sigmoid colon, rectum and anus: The cut portion of the sigmoid colon and rectum are removed out of the body through one of the bigger incisions.
Step 4. Making the stoma: The remaining colon will be pulled out through an opening created on the left side of the belly. This cavity is cleaned well and a tube is connected to this which will be used as the passage for the human waste to be pumped out. To this tube a pouch will be attached which will serve as the storage for the human waste. As the stoma is not having any controlling device to close and open when wanted, the waste will be continuously collected in the pouch which will be periodically cleared.
Peculiarities of laparoscopic surgeries
- As the incisions are smaller it will heal faster and pain will be considerably lesser.
- Blood transfusion will not be necessary in many cases as there will be less blood loss.
- Recovery will be faster and the patient will be able to return to his normal activities at an earlier date.
- Obese persons are not suitable for laparoscopic procedures.
- Person who had already undergone a surgical procedure in that part of the body are not considered for laparoscopic surgeries