Gynecology: Gynecology is that branch of medical science which specializes in the health of women in relation to her genital system. Women’s genital system is comprised of reproductive organs which includes the uterus where the fetus grows, the cervix which is the opening of the uterus to the vagina, the ovaries which produce the sex hormones and eggs, the fallopian tubes which carry the egg from ovaries to the uterus and the vagina which is a muscular tract from the cervix to the outside of the body. Significant changes takes place in the above organs as women starts menstruating. Menstruation is periodic cycles during which women sheds the lining in the uterus when fertilization of the egg takes place. Changes in these organs take place as she becomes pregnant. Another significant change occurs in this organs again as a woman reaches her menopause, at which she stops menstruating.
Infertility: Infertility is the situation in which couples fail to conceive pregnancy in spite of trying to do so by living together for at least one year. When pregnancy has never occurred it is known as primary infertility. In the cases where a couple had already conceived and given birth to a child, is not able to conceive their second child even after living together and trying for pregnancy at least for one year, it is known as secondary infertility. Infertility is a problem which requires the evaluation of the individual problems of each of the two individuals forming the couple and the evaluation of the inter action between these two persons. Statistical data show that the infertility caused by male factors contribute to 30 %, where as the ovarian problems, tubal factors, endometriosis and cervical problems contribute to 20 %, 10%, 10 %, and 5% respectively of the total infertility cases. When other treatments options fail, people turn to In vitro fertilization which can be very helpful in resolving infertility problems to a great extent.
Laparoscopic procedures: Laparoscopic procedures are minimally invasive surgical procedures in which surgery is carried out using three or four small incisions of 1 to 2 cms in size. In this procedure a laparoscope which is an instrument with camera and a light source on one end is inserted through one of the small incisions. The video taken by this camera is projected to a video monitor placed in front of the surgeon. Through other small incisions the special instruments used for this surgery are inserted. The surgical procedure in this type of surgery is not done directly by surgeon with his hand. He views the live video of the internal organs and the surgery being carried out in the monitor and performs the surgical activities by controlling the instruments remotely. Carbon dioxide will be pumped to the abdominal cavity to enlarge it and make more room for the surgery and to get a clear view of the instruments and the internal organs. As the incisions are smaller there will be less pain and the healing and recovery will be faster. Laparoscopic procedures have become the vogue of the day due to the development of specialized instruments and techniques to conduct a vast number of surgical procedures using this technique. Lap oophorctomy for removing the ovaries, lap myomectomy for removing the fibroids in the uterus, lap hysterectomy for removing the uterus and cervix, lap drilling for polycystic ovary syndrome used for problems related to ovaries etc are some of the laparoscopic procedures which are in use for the general gynecological problems.
Endoscopy: Endoscopy is the process of examining the interior of an organ or a cavity inside the body for medical reasons. Endoscope is an instrument with a miniature camera attached to a thin rigid tube and the video taken by this camera can be viewed by the surgeon instantly in its enlarged version. This video is recorded so that the surgeon can view it later and reach at appropriate conclusions. Upper endoscopy is done by inserting the endoscope through mouth for viewing the esophageal tract, stomach and upper part of the small intestine. Similarly sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy is done by inserting the endoscope through rectum.