Surgeries in human beings are carried out in two separate procedures. One is the conventional open surgery procedure in which a long incision about 6 to 8 inches in size is made in the body and the organs to be operated are accessed directly by the surgeon and he carries out the surgery with his hands. In the second method which is known as laparoscopic technique, the surgeon does not access the organs directly and no larger incision is also needed in this method. In this method two or three smaller incisions are made near the area to be operated and the surgeon resects the area through a video of the area obtained through a laparoscope. Laparoscope is a special instrument with a camera and a light source on one end of a long flexible tube. This tube is entered into the body through a cannula which is inserted through the vein with the help of one of the small incisions in the body. The cannula will be guided to the operation area with the help of X-rays. The camera takes the videos of the operation being performed and this video is enlarged and displayed in the video receiver placed in front of the surgeon. Other special instruments for the surgery are inserted through other small incisions in the body and the surgeon performs the surgery remotely controlling the instruments by seeing them in the monitor. General surgery is the surgery related to abdominal contents which include important organs like stomach, esophagus, colon, bowel, bile, thyroid gland gallbladder etc. Prior to the introduction of laparoscopic technique surgeries related to the above organs were carried out in the conventional way with an open surgery. But the standardization of laparoscopic procedure and development of special instruments for this purpose has made it possible that all these surgeries can be done in the minimally invasive procedure. The important surgeries that are carried out under this category are lap appendectomy, lap cholecystectomy, lap inguinal hernia repair( TAPP/TEP), lap ventral hernia repair, lap varicocelectomy, mesh rectoplexy for rectal prolapse, bariatric surgery etc.
Laparoscopic General Surgeries
Appendix is a small blind ended tube of the size of your finger projecting from cecum. Cecum is the junction where the small intestine and the large intestine meet. The functional purpose of appendix is not known to medical science. In some persons the appendix may become infected by bacteria causing inflammation and formation of pus. Causes for infection can be mechanical blockage by stool, or a foreign substance etc. The inflamed condition of the appendix is known as appendicitis. In severe cases the appendicitis, the appendix may burst which can be fatal.Read More
Lap CholecystectomyGall bladder is a greenish colored small organ located behind the liver in which the bile is stored. Bile is a liquid produced by the liver which helps in the digestion of the food.When the body has to digest some fat, gall bladder contracts and the bile so released is passed to the small intestine where it helps in the digestive process. Bile contains bile salts, cholesterol, bilirubin, water and fats. When the percentage of bile salts,cholesterol and bilirubin increases in the bile it may result in the solidification of the bile liquid into stones. 80 % of the gall stones are formed by hardened cholesterol and it has an yellowish green color. Gall stones may be in the form of a single larger one or may consist of hundreds of smaller ones.Read More
Lap Inguinal Hernia repair (TEP and TAPP)Protrusion of small intestine through the tender poriton in the groin is referred as inguinal hernia. Inguinal hernia is not usually seen in women. Usually hernia does not cause any serious concern. But at times it may grow in size and cause serious problems to the affected person. Activities like walking, running and taking part in physical exertion can increase the pain, swelling and inconveniences caused by hernia. Hernia cannot be controlled by any medication or treatment options. This can be rectified only through surgical procedures.Read More
Lap VaricocelectomyVaricocele is a disease in which the testicular veins are dilated resulting in infertility. Pain and testicular diminution are common symptoms of varicocele.This defect can be rectified only through a surgical procedure known as varicocelectomy. A study conducted on 98 patients has revealed that 72 % of the patients were having left varicocele and 28 % were having dual varicocele. This procedure is normally carried out as a laparoscopic surgery as a one day procedure.Read More
Lap Cardiomyotomy for Achalasia CardiaAchalasia or achalasia cardia is a disorder in which difficulty is experienced in swallowing. There is no cure for this disorder. Treatment is usually done with an intention to give relief to the patient from its symptoms.Read More
Lap Fundoplication for Hiatus Hernia Anti-Reflux SurgeryReturn of acidic juices or food and fluids back to esophagus is known as GRED ( Gastro esophageal reflux). Lower esophagus sphincter (LES) valve closes when food passes from esophagus to stomach. When LES does not close properly the food and acid from the stomach flows back to esophagus and this is known as GRED. GRED can be caused by hiatal hernia also which means protruding of small intestine or stomach through an enlarged opening of the diaphragm.Read More
Lap Liver Abscess SurgeryLiver is an important organ which carries out many functions including production of bile, creation of hormones, controlling of cholesterol and cleaning of toxins from medicines, alcohol, drugs etc. Liver abscess is a cyst in the liver which is filled with puss. These abscesses are formed from infection which may reach liver from nearby structures like bile duct, intestines and appendix. Liver abscesses are also developed as a result of trauma caused to liver or as a result of surgeries being carried out in the nearby organs. If liver abscess is detected in time it can be treated and cured by antibiotics. A surgical procedure used for draining the abscess. If left untreated the liver abscess can burst and result in life threatening bacterial infection.Read More
Lap Hydatid Disease SurgeryHydatid disease is caused by the infection of the dog tapeworm echinococcus granulosus in its larva stage. This happens as a result of accidental ingestion of the excreted tapeworm eggs in the facets of dogs that are infected. The tapeworm echinococcus granulosus is about 5 mm in size and it grows in the gut of animals like dogs, foxes etc. Eggs of these worms are excreted with the stool and cause infection in intermediate hosts like sheep, goats, camels, pigs etc. These eggs are hatched while they are inside the body of the intermediate host and they invade the intestinal walls and are carried to important organs like liver, lungs, brain etc. causing the formation of hydatid cysts in these animals. These herbivores when eaten by carnivores, new tapeworm develops in about six week’s time in them and the cycle repeats.Read More
Lap SplenectomyLaparoscopic splenectomy is a procedure followed by surgeons to remove a damaged spleen through several small incisions in the body. Removal of spleen is usually accomplished through open surgery in which a large incision about 6 to 8 inches in length will have to be made for carrying out the surgery. In laparoscopic surgery as the incisions are smaller there will be less pain and the recovery will be faster and the period of hospitalization will also be lesser.Read More
Lap Resection Anastomosis of IntestinePathological condition of small intestine like intestinal polyps, round worm infection etc may necessitate the removal or by passing of the infected portion. The establishment of communication between end portions of the removed/by passed intestine is referred by the term intestinal anastomosis.Read More
Lap StricturoplastyAbnormal narrowing of a passage in human body is known strictures. Strictures can be very annoying and even life-threatening. It can cause difficulties in urinating and cause problems in eating food and digesting the food one has eaten depending upon the area of the stricture. Read More
Lap Meckel’s DiverticulectomyAn abnormal pouch or sack that is formed in the small intestine at a weaker point is known as diverticulum. Various types of diverticulums may be formed as a person ages. Diverticulum contains tissues similar to that of stomach or pancreas. But some diverticulums are formed during the formation of the fetus and such a diverticulum formed on the intestine at the lower part of it is known as Meckel’s diverticulum. Even though some people have Meckel’s diverticulam most of them do not show any symptoms and only a few show some symptom at all.Read More
Lap Adrenal Tumor ResectionAdrenal glands are two smaller organs located on top of each kidney. These glands are triangular in shape and are about the size of a thumb. Adrenal glands produce hormones including epinephrine, norepinephrine and very little of sex hormones named estrogen and androgen. These hormones are involved in controlling the glucose and water usage in the body, control of blood pressure etc. At times some benign tumours are formed on this adrenal gland resulting in the production excess hormone than needed by the body. Most of adrenal tumour can be very easily removed by laparoscopic procedures. In some cases the entire adrenal gland need to be removed for some tumours even if they are not producing excess hormones.Read More
Lap NephrectomyKidneys are fist sized organs located at the upper back side of the abdomen. They perform different types of functions like production of urine, maintenance of levels of minerals in the bloodstream, production certain hormones and circulation red blood cells. Nephrectomy means a surgical procedure in which a part of the kidney or a complete kidney is removed. When a kidney is damaged or when the kidney is having cancerous growths, or when kidney is donated for transplantation, nephrectomy becomes inevitable. Nephrectomy can be done in the traditional way of open surgery through a large incision in the abdomen or the side. This surgery can be done as laparoscopic surgery through three or four small incisions. There are three types of nephrectomy.Read More
Lap PyeloplastyUrine produced in the kidney is excreted to renal pelvis which a tunnel is shaped organ connected to ureter through pelvi-ureteric junction. Due to congenital abnormalities, damages caused in a previous surgery or other reasons the flow of urine from pelvi-ureteric junction to urethra may be obstructed. This may lead to progressive deterioration and renal damage.Read More
Lap PyelolithotomyKidney stones are a concretion of crystals formed from dietary minerals in the urine and are classified by their location in the kidney, bladder or ureter. Usually small stones formed in the kidneys are passed through urine without being noticed. But when the size of the stone increases it may cause obstruction to the passage of urine causing severe painRead More
Lap UreterolithotomyStones in the kidneys are formed from the dietary minerals contained in the urine. They are classified based on the location where they are found. Small stones formed in the kidneys naturally pass out during urination without being noticed. Stones with a size of 3 mm or more usually get struck in the kidney or bladder or ureter causing severe pain. The surgical procedure followed by surgeons to remove stones trapped inside the ureter is known as ureterolithotomy. Ureter is the tube connecting the kidney and the bladder. Read More
Lap Orchidopexy for Undescended TestisIn human beings testicles are situated inside the sac beneath the scrotum (penis). In a foetus testicles are formed inside the abdomen which descends into its final position by the time the baby is born. In some cases the testicles do not move downwards to its exact location and remains somewhere in between. Such testicles are referred as undescended testicles. Undescended testicles are classified based on the position where they are remaining at the time of birth and whether they can be felt or not (palpable or non palpable) Read More
Lap pediatric SurgeriesThough laparoscopic surgeries were introduced as early as 1902, it became an accepted surgical procedure and became popular only during the last quarter of the previous century. In laparoscopic procedure the surgeon is not conducting surgeries directly using his hands. Furthermore, only three or four small incisions of the size 1 to 2cms are required in this method as against an incision of about 6 to 8 inches required in the conventional open surgery. In this type of surgery a laparoscope is inserted through one of the incisions and through other incisions the instruments required for carrying out the surgery are inserted. A laparoscope is an instrument with a miniature camera and light source on one end of a flexible tube, the other end of which will be connected to a monitor placed in front of the surgeon. Seeing the videos taken by the camera in the monitor the surgeon performs the surgery by remotely controlling the special instruments inserted for this purpose. Read More
Laparoscopic Surgeries On Ovaries
A pair of ovaries located on both sides of uterus are most important organs of the human body which produces eggs for the reproduction purpose. But the ovaries can be dysfunctional due to the existence of cysts, polyps, tumors etc. There a lot of treatment options for the successful management of this disorders. Even though medications have been found to be very affective in controlling and relieving the symptoms, the eradication of the disease or disorder is usually accomplished by surgical removal of the affected ovary or ovaries and the adjacent structures like fallopian tubes uterus etc. Read More
Laparoscopic Surgeries on Fallopian Tubes
Fallopian tube is the tube connect the ovaries to the uterus. The egg meets the sperm in the fallopian tube and fertilization takes place in this tube. The fetus so formed is transported and implanted in the uterus with the help of fallopian tubes. Any blocks in the fallopian tube may prevent the passage of sperm, egg and fetus to the womb. This is a common cause of infertility which can be corrected by many surgical procedures. Read More
Laparoscopic Cancer Treatments
Cancer is a dreaded disease which is spreading its wings across the mankind in a ghastly way. Though medical science has developed very much, it could not boast that cancer is under its control. Early detection of the disease often leads to better management and even cure. Chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, bone marrow/stem cell transplantation etc are some of the most common treatment options followed by surgeons around the world. Read More
Laparoscopic Pediatric Surgeries
Though laparoscopic surgeries were introduced as early as 1902, it became an accepted surgical procedure and became popular only during the last quarter of the previous century. In laparoscopic procedure the surgeon is not conducting surgeries directly using his hands. Furthermore, only three or four small incisions of the size 1 to 2cms are required in this method as against an incision of about 6 to 8 inches required in the conventional open surgery. In this type of surgery a laparoscope is inserted through one of the incisions and through other incisions the instruments required for carrying out the surgery are inserted. Read More
Advantages of laparoscopic procedures
- These surgeries are carried out with the help of smaller incisions. Hence there will be lesser pain only and the recovery time will also be lesser.
- As the incisions are smaller there will be less bleeding. Blood transfusion will not be necessary in many surgeries under this category.
- Although the time consumed for this surgery is greater than that for open surgeries, the patient will recover faster and will be able to return to his normal routine at an early date.
- Internal organs are not very much exposed in this surgery and there is less possibility of internal organs becoming contaminated.
Meet Our Experts
Dr. Nagaraj B Puttaswamy MBBS., MS ( General Surgery) Specialties: Laparoscopic Surgery Special clinical interests: Bariatric (Obesity) Surgeries Laparoscopic Hernia Surgeries Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgeries Academic interests: GERD and Hiatus Hernia. Book An Appointment Thyroid Surgeries. Current post: Mananging Director, Punya Hospitals India Pvt Ltd Consultant Laparoscopic Surgeon, Gynaec & Surgical Clinic. Read MoreDr. Punyavathi C Nagaraj MBBS., MD (OBG)., FMAS., Diploma in Gynaec Endosopic Surgeries (Germany) Specialties: Laparoscopic Gynaecologist Graduation: MBBS from KIMS Bangalore – passed out in the year 1993-94 Registrar in the Dept of OB GYNAEC from 1996 to 1998 MD (OBG) from KIMS Bangalore Read More