Laparoscopy is a surgical technique in which surgery is carried out through small incisions of the size about a few centimeters. In this surgery an instrument called laparoscope, which is a camera and a light source connected to one end of a small tube, is inserted through a cannula inserted through one on these small incisions. The other end of this long tube is connected to a video camera placed in front of the surgeon in the theatre. The videos taken by the camera is enlarged and displayed in the monitor. The surgeon visualises the surgery through this monitor and conducts the surgery remotely controlling the special instruments inserted throug other small incisions.
The first laparoscopic surgery was performed by George Kelling of Germany in dogs in the year 1902. The first laparoscopic surgery in human beings was perfromed in the year 1910 by Hans Christian Jacoaeus of Sweden. The technique of laparoscopy was developed during the ensuing decades and it has acquired its immense popularity of the present day after the invention of computer chip camera which made it possible for the projection of real time videos. Proir to this laparoscopic approach was confined to simple procedures relating to diagnosis and gynecologic applications.
In 1972, the first video filem of laparoscopic surgery was publisehd and in 1975, the first organ resection was performed laparoscopically by a srugeon from Brassil and this was published in a medial jounal in the year 1981. First laparoscopic appendectomy was performed by surgeon of Germany in the year 1981. In the samy year Semm a surgeon from Germany established standard procedures and performed surgeries like ovarian cyst removal, myomectomy, vaginal hysterectomy, etc and produced certain endoscopic instruments. He also published 30 endoscopic films, 20,000 color slides and some books on laparoscopic procedures which played a prominent role in the spread of laparoscopic procedures.
Advantages of laparoscopic procedures
1) Smaller incisions only are made which reduces the pain and recovery time associated with the surgical procedure.
2) Less bleeding in this surgery which reduces the need for blood transfusion.
3) Although the time needed to complete the surgery may be little larger, the hospital stay will be lesser and will be able to return to routine activities at an early date.
4) Reduced exposure of internal organs which results in reduced contamination of the Internal organs.
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Dr. Nagaraj B Puttaswamy MBBS., MS ( General Surgery) Specialties: Laparoscopic Surgery Special clinical interests: Bariatric (Obesity) Surgeries Laparoscopic Hernia Surgeries Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgeries Academic interests: GERD and Hiatus Hernia. Book An Appointment Thyroid Surgeries. Current post: Mananging Director, Punya Hospitals India Pvt Ltd Consultant Laparoscopic Surgeon, Gynaec & Surgical Clinic.