Fallopian tubes are tiny tube-like structures of about 10 cms length connection the uterus to the ovaries. The ova (eggs from) from the ovaries are carried after ovulation through fallopian tubes to the uterus. While they were in the fallopian tube they meet sperm present there after the sexual intercourse and get fertilized. The embryo so formed is transported to the uterus by the fallopian tubes where they get implanted. The importance of fallopian tubes in the process of conception is very clear from the above. Any narrowing of the tube or any blockage in the tube can cause difficulty to the movements of the egg, the sperm and the embryo which may result in infertility. This may happen in one or both of the tubes.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is the most common cause for infertility caused by tubal factor. PID is generally refers to condition caused by the inflammation of fallopian tubes, uterus and ovaries. Sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea and chlamydia are the normal causes of these inflammations. If these infections of these are left untreated, it may lead to the formation of scar tissues resulting in the blockage of fallopian tubes and consequent infertility. Endometriosis, tuberculosis ruptured appendix etc can also cause blockage to the fallopian tubes.
Tubal recanalisation is a non surgical procedure carried out by the surgeons to remove the blockage in the fallopian tubes. In this procedure sedation is given to the patient and a speculum is inserted to your vagina. A speculum is a special instrument which can be used to open the vagina to get a clear view of the cervix and the nearby tissues. Now a catheter is inserted into your uterus and it is allowed to pass through the fallopian tubes. At this stage a special dye is released and an X-ray photograph is taken. If the dye is visible in the X-ray as passing through the fallopian tube, then your fallopian tubes is having no problem. If the dye is seen blocked somewhere, it is a sure signal of the blockage experienced by your fallopian tubes. At this stage the surgeons may pass a guide wire through the catheter and manipulate it and remove the blockage. In some cases the surgeon may try to clear the obstruction by inserting a balloon and inflating it at the blockage site.
Statistics show that blockage can be removed by this procedure in about 70 % of the cases if the blockage experienced is near the uterine entrance. The risk factors associated with this procedure is abdominal bleeding, fallopian tube perforations and ectopic pregnancy. Blockage caused by pelvic inflammatory diseases and endometriosis are generally away from the entrance of the uterus and hence this technique may not be suitable for it. Your doctor may discuss the problem with you and suggest alternative treatment options.